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LNF e le tecnologie per lo SPAZIO: Laboratori di test e calibrazione

L’INFN e i Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati portano avanti una intensa attività di ricerca tecnologica i cui prodotti, oltre che nella ricerca fondamentale, trovano applicazione in diversi campi di interesse sia sociale che industriale. In questo ciclo di seminari, dedicati ognuno a tecnologie e infrastrutture di interesse per un determinato settore, i LNF vogliono continuare il dialogo aperto con altri Enti, Università, Istituzioni ed Imprese in occasione dell’Open Day Imprese a Giugno 2017.   LNF e le tecnologie per lo SPAZIO: Laboratori di test e calibrazione Ai LNF operano alcuni laboratori capaci di fornire test e calibrazione di strumenti, dispositivi e componenti per applicazioni spaziali. Queste attività riguardano strumenti per la telemetria e altimetria laser, test ambientali per cubo- e micro-satelliti, radiazioni di sincrotrone nel visibile, UV, infrarosso, raggi X, fotoni gamma, elettroni e positroni. L’attività è condotta in partnership istituzionali tra INFN e NASA-SSERVI (Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute) e ASIF (ASI Supported Irradiation Facilities). Coordina: S. Dell’Agnello Prossimo Seminario Le tecnologie di magneti e vuoto: infrastrutture e servizi – Febbraio 2019

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MEasuring the Gravitational constant with Atom interferometry for Novel fundamental physics TEst (MEGANTE)

Starting from the original experiment performed by Henry Cavendish more than two centuries ago, the precision determination of the gravitational constant G remains a challenging endeavor. It has been measured about a dozen times over the last 50 years, but the results have varied much more than what would be expected from random and systematic errors. Likely, this is due to the fact that, so far, all the past experiments have relied on macroscopic classical instruments, which could all be governed by uncontrolled mechanical influences. On the other hand, a recent controversial study about correlations between the measured values of G and the variations of the length of day seems to suggest that some other not well-understood effects could be present. The MEGANTE experiment (ERC-StG-2018 hosted by INFN) will address all these issues by carrying out precision G determinations making use of original experimental strategies based on quantum sensors. Unprecedented accuracy levels will be achieved using cold atoms in free-fall to probe the gravitational field, surpassing thus the state-of-art measurements based on torsion balance and simple pendulum. In parallel, MEGANTE will provide results that go far beyond the pure metrological interest. Indeed, owing the lack of a full understanding of gravity, several theoretical models predict new physics phenomena such violations of the inverse square law or a dependency of the G value from the local density of the matter. In the present talk I will present all the scientific and technical challenges that are needed to be faced in order ...

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Applications of Stochastic Schroedinger Equations: from Quantum Foundations to Transport Phenomena.

In this seminar, I will discuss the applications of linear and non-linear stochastic Schroedinger equations in quantum foundations as well as in the study of transport phenomena in open quantum systems. In quantum foundations, non-linear stochastic Schroedinger equations play a fundamental role in collapse models. In these models, the wavefunction collapse in space is described by a non-linear interaction with an external classical noise, resolving the measurement problem. From a mathematical point of view, the evolution of the state of the system is described by a class of non-linear stochastic Schroedinger equations, which will be discussed. Transport phenomena in open quantum systems are relevant in a large class of interesting systems. The study of the dynamics of a chain of harmonic oscillators locally connected to baths at an arbitrary temperature will be discussed. The advantages of solving the system dynamics using stochastic unravellings instead of working directly with the master equation will be highlighted. The study is relevant in the field of quantum thermodynamics as well as for exciton transfer in biological networks.

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Single and entangled photons with quantum dot cavity-QED

Recent progress in solid-state cavity-QED with semiconductor quantum dots enables efficient photonic quantum gates. Apart from studies of fundamentally new cavity QED effects, those systems allow the generation of high-brightness quantum light in Fock space at a strongly reduced experimental complexity. This opens up, for instance, a new kind of “quantum-light spectroscopy” that was not possible before, with applications and in order to address open questions in bio-molecular spectroscopy and microscopy. At the same time, the quantum dot cavity-QED systems can be used to create large entangled states involving potentially several tens of photons in a deterministic way, avoiding post-selection and therefore much more efficient exploration of those highly entangled systems, cluster and graph states, first steps in this direction will be shown.

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New Quantum Horizons: From Foundations To Biology

Overview Image taken from http://discovermagazine.com/2014/dec/17-this-quantum-life   The main aim of the “New Quantum Horizons: From Foundations To Biology” Symposium is to discuss in an informal and friendly environment theoretical and experimental issues related to quantum physics, from foundational issues (such as connection between gravity and quantum physics, collapse models, spin-statistics) to applicative aspects, including new findings and ideas to investigate quantum effects in biological systems. The Symposium is supported by the Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Roma and by LNF-INFN. Conference Organizer: Catalina Curceanu, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Italy Beatrix Hiesmayr, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Local Organizing Committee: A. Scordo, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Italy A. Tamborrino Orsini, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Italy

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Photon-photon interactions via pseudoscalar fields

The aim of this talk is to review several aspects of two-gamma physics in relation to the exclusive process gamma gamma -> pseudoscalar meson, described by a transition form factor, as a function of the squared transfer momenta of the two photons. On this basis, the motivation for this kind of research, as well as its current status from theoretical and experimental points of view, will be discussed, e.g., recent BaBar measurements of the double off-shell photon transitions to eta’ mesons.

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Ionization and radiative electron capture processes (REC) in ion-atom collisions at MeV/u energy range and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques, applied to different types of materials

The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the research activity carried out at the Horia-Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest, Romania The seminar topic will focus mainly on the processes occurring in the rapid collisions of heavy-light ions such as 12C, 16O, 32S and 35Cl with thin (self-supporting) solid targets. The ionization and X-ray (characteristic and radiative electron capture-REC) cross sections from integral measurements of K and L X-ray yields have been determined. The measurements were performed at 9 MV FN Pelletron Tandem Accelerator of IFIN-HH. The measured X-ray cross-sections are useful in developing and testing theoretical models (such as PWBA + ECPSSR, SCA, geometric model, Stobbe formula for REC) and complements the existing database for atomic ionization cross-sections. They can have an important role in applied physics, such as elemental PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) analysis with heavy ions, heavier than proton. Within the last section of the seminar, I will discuss the PIXE method, along with other IBA techniques, which are used to characterize different type of materials. Thus, PIXE along with PIGE (particle-induced gamma-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry), are one of the "Total IBA" techniques, simultaneously applied in order to determine elemental concentrations and depth profiling of the thin films and various biological samples, with applications in materials physics and medicine. Certain measurements, on certain samples (such as antlers) have been obtained for the first time through the “total IBA”-type method, using the 3 MV Tandetron Accelerator of IFIN-HH, ...

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