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Tracking particle in space and time

The combination of precision space and time information in particle tracking has the capability of transforming how we design experiments, 4D tracking is being considered in the upgrade of the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments at the High-Luminosity LHC, set to start data taking in 2024-25. Regardless of the type of solution chosen, space-time tracking brings benefits to the performance of the detectors by reducing the background and sharpening the resolution; it improves tracking performances and simplifies tracks combinatorics. Space-time tracking also allows investigating new physics channels, for example, it opens up the possibilities of new searches in long-living particles by measuring accurately the time of flight between the production and the decaying vertexes.

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High precision X-ray measurements

Overview Since their discovery in 1895, the detection of X-rays had a strong impact and various  applications in several fields of science and human life. Impressive efforts have been done to develop new type of detectors and new techniques, aiming to obtain higher precisions both in terms of energy and position. Depending on the applications, Solid State Detectors, Microcalorimeters and various types of Spectrometers provide nowadays the best performances as spectroscopic and imaging detectors. The now reachable few microns and meV precisions open the door towards ground breaking applications in fundamental physics, medical science, astrophysics, cultural heritage and several other fields. The aim of this workshop is to have an overview, from different communities and research fields, of the most recent developments in X-ray detection and their possible impacts in various sectors like, for example, exotic atoms measurements, quantum physics studies, XRF, XES, EXAFS, plasma emission spectroscopy, monochromators, synchrotron radiation, telescopes and space engineering. A special focus will be put on the role played by mosaic crystals of pyrolitic graphite which, thanks to their physical properties, may have promising applications in many of these fields. This workshop is organized in the framework of the VOXES project, supported and financed by the 5th National Scientific Committee of INFN in the framework of the Young Researcher Grant 2015, n. 17367/2015.   Main Topics: X-ray energy detectors X-ray position detectors Spectrometers X-ray optics Graphite based applications X-ray imaging X-rays in astrophysisc X-rays in nuclear physics Cultural heritage applications of X-rays Medical applications Conference ...

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Halide Perovskites: new materials for optoelectronic devices

Organometal Halide Perovskites such as MethylAmmonium Lead Iodide are opening new opportunity for solution-process high performing optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes etc. The success of such materials is based on the ideal direct band gap, good electron and hole diffusion lengths and the easy manufacture. Moreover, tuning of electronic and optical properties can be achieved by varying cation composition (Cs, Rb, FA, MA etc.) and halide composition (I, Br, Cl). One of the most successful application of such materials is in the field of solar cell where a certified efficiency of 22.7% has been achieved for single cells and 27.3% for tandem perovskite/silicon. I this talk I will review the main characteristics of the halide perovskites and the application to conventional optoelectronic devices showing possible applications in the field of high-energy physics.

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ICFDT5 – 5th International Conference on Frontier in Diagnostic Technologies

Overview ICFDT is an interdisciplinary conference, jointly organized by INFN and ENEA Frascati laboratories, aimed at bringing together scientists, engineers and also experts from industries. Contributions are welcome from the frontiers of diagnostics in different areas of research: high energy and accelerator physics and technology, nuclear fusion plasmas, space and astrophysics research, medical applications, lasers physics and technology, etc., to discuss common interests in concepts and realization of measurement systems. Special focus of this 5th ICFDT edition will be on proposals/projects/ideas for novel measurement systems with a high degree of reliability and innovation to mark significant progress in the diagnostic techniques for Advanced Accelerators, Innovative Nuclear Fusion Devices, Metamaterials and the Detection of Fast and Ultra-fast Events. The ICFDT5 will have seven special and regular plenary sessions, a satellite meeting and a poster session (see Scientific Programme). Important dates: 15 July 2018    Talk Acceptance Notification 31 July 2018    Early Registration Deadline 10 Sept. 2018  Poster Abstract Submission Deadline 14 Sept. 2018  Late Registration Deadline 3-5 Oct. 2018  Conference Convened

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LODES18 – A 1-day OECD – Global Science Forum Workshop on “A Study to Define a Linked Open Data Platform of Interoperable Repositories to Enable Open Science”

The objective of LODES is to carry out a study and deliver a report on enablers, obstacles, policies and recommendations for the setup of a cross-country federation of standard-based, multi-domain Linked Open Data repositories leveraging as well as addressing the concept of Open Science. The workshop is part of the activity of the OECD Global Science Forum.

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Theory of pump-probe spectroscopy: Ultrafast laser engineering of ordered phases and microscopic couplings

Intense femtosecond laser pulses, spanning a large range of photon energies from the X-ray to the THz regime, allow for controlled excitations (“pump”) and monitoring (“probe”) of the nonequilibrium dynamics of all the relevant microscopic degrees of freedom in solids. The field of ultrafast materials science is currently evolving from measuring time constants – for instance for the decay of hot electrons via phonon emission – towards ultrafast laser engineering of nonthermal phases of matter with novel properties. Notable examples include light-induced superconducting-like behavior [1], ultrafast switching to hidden ordered states [2], or time-reversal symmetry-broken Floquet states in topological insulators [3]. I will discuss recent theoretical progress in understanding these diverse phenomena from microscopic models and nonequilibrium simulations. I will show examples of light-enhanced superconductivity in an electron-phonon system from classical nonlinear phononics [4,5] and laser-controlled order competition between superconductivity and charge-density waves [6]. I will discuss laser engineering of microscopic couplings in graphene [7] based on quantum nonlinear phononics [8,9]. I will also show ab initio time-dependent density functional theory results for laser-engineered Hubbard U in NiO [10], with a recent application to light-induce the elusive magnetic Weyl semimetal in pyrochlore iridates [11]. I will also highlight some recent developments towards cavity quantum electrodynamical environments enhancing electron-phonon coupling in 2D materials [12], and efforts to make nonequilbrium Green’s functions fast for correlated ordered phases (excitonic condensates) using the generalized Kadanoff-Baym ansatz [13].

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Non-specific mechanisms of microbial radionuclide bioaccumulation

The talk will present the second aspect of the concept – non-specific accumulation of radionuclides by microorganisms based on similarity of ionic radii of radionuclides and metal ions with macro elements. The first part will include an overview about ion interactions with surface cell structures and of mechanisms of ion transport into microbial cells. In the next part will be presented a principle for classification of elements according to similarity of ionic radii and comprehensive table rearranging the periodic table of elements according to this principle. After that, three groups consisting of macro elements and their metal and radionuclide analogues will be discussed in details to understand and analyze mechanisms of non-specific radionuclide accumulation. The last part of the seminar will discuss ways for application of natural mechanisms of ion sorption and transport to provide efficient radionuclide extraction from waste waters and methods for enhancing bioaccumulation capacity in various environmental conditions. Also, few examples of application of combination of microbial non-specific reduction and non-specific accumulation will be given to demonstrate an efficiency of established theoretical approach.

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Application of electrochemical approach for forecasting and analysis of microorganisms-radionuclide interactions

The talk will tell about the fundamentals of the concept – application of electrochemical approach to multi-component systems that include aqueous medium, radionuclides, organic matter and living organisms. These will include explanation of basic electrochemical notions and terminology, analysis of multi-component systems and characteristics of their element as well as detection of their key electrochemical properties. The result of these considerations will be justification of an idea about non-specific nature of microbial/radionuclide redox interactions, which will provide the scope and background for the further in-depth discussion. The second part of the seminar will be dedicated to presentation of the first tool of the concept – Pourbaix diagrams and their adaptation to analysis of radionuclide behavior in biological environment which will include explanation of limits for biological systems, transformation of stability fields into reaction equation towards metal ions and radionuclides, identification of essential conditions for running redox reaction and use of the pH – Eh coordinates to determine the characteristics of the reaction under various environmental conditions. Finally, few examples will be given to demonstrate the application of the approach to detect conditions for non-specific reduction of radionuclides and radioactive metal isotopes.

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The characterization of metal photo-cathode for high brightness electron beam photoinjectors

R&D activity on Cu photo-cathodes is under development at the SPARC_LAB test facility to fully characterize each stage of the photocathode ‘‘life’’ and to have a complete overview of the photoemission properties in high brightness photo-injectors. The nano (n)-machining process presented here consists in diamond milling, and blowing with dry nitrogen. This procedure reduces the roughness of the cathode surface and prevents surface contamination introduced by other techniques, such as polishing with diamond paste or the machining with oil. Both high roughness and surface contamination cause an increase of intrinsic emittance and consequently a reduction of the overall electron beam brightness. To quantify these effects, we have characterized the photocathode surface in terms of roughness measurement, and morphology and chemical composition analysis by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. The effects of n-machining on the electron beam quality have been also investigated through emittance measurements before and after the surface processing technique. Finally, we present preliminary emittance studies of yttrium thin film on Cu photo-cathodes.

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Laser irradiated foam targets: Absorption and Radiative Properties

The design of specific fuel targets represents the crucial point of the Inertial Confinement Fusion scheme. In fact during the laser-matter interaction, due to the irradiation in homogeneities both parametric and hydrodynamic instabilities could be generated, leading to target pre-heating and compression inefficiency. In order to avoid these drawbacks it was considered of interest to coat fusion pellet with light foams, which can act as absorbers of the laser radiation, providing a more homogeneous irradiation and enhancing the efficiency of conversion of laser energy into shock wave energy [1,2]. The presentation will concern the results of 2016 experimental campaign, developed at ENEA research center in Frascati (Rome), in which we studied the behavior of a porous material (Polystyrene Foam) interacting with an high energy Nd laser pulse (duration 3 ns, 30J energy, focal spot dimension 100 µm). From streak camera images we estimated the volume involved in absorption and from the measurement of plasma expansion velocity it was possible to roughly estimate the plasma temperature. With semiconductor detectors we were able to get information about the X-ray emission. In particular we observed that porous materials present an X-ray emission higher than the respective solid material, being comparable to the amount emitted by an Aluminum target. Concerning the density profile, the interferometric images highlighted the presence of second harmonic emission, when irradiating solid material and its absence during the irradiation of porous plastic, which can be symptomatic of a plasma characterized by smoother density gradients [3]. References 1. R. De Angelis, ...

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