iten

Tag Archives: Evento scientifico

The U boson as a generalized dark photon, possibly also behaving as an axionlike particle

Could a new interaction exist in nature ?  Beyond weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions, it is natural to enquire about an additional one, associated with an extra-U(1) gauge group. The corresponding boson, called U forty years ago, may be (very) light, and (very) weakly coupled, its properties depending on m_U, the size of its coupling, and corresponding current (which depends on the BE-Higgs symmetry-breaking sector). Its vector part is a combination of electromagnetic with B and L (or B-L) currents. Axial couplings may also be present, which may make the spin-1 U boson interact much like a spin-0 axionlike particle. We discuss some of the effects of such a new boson, including its production in e+e- annihilations and beam dump experiments, ψ, Υ and K decays, parity-violation effects in atomic physics, anomalous magnetic moments of charged leptons, non-standard neutrino interactions, a possible “protophobic” behaviour suppressing π° -> γ U decays (related with a tentative interpretation of the Atomki anomaly). The U may also serve as a mediator to a new dark sector, allowing for thermally-produced light dark matter particles. Join Zoom Meeting https://infn-it.zoom.us/j/86034969060?pwd=Nlp4eWdpOUhGam9QQmFpczB2TlVmQT09 Meeting ID: 860 3496 9060 Passcode: 809510

Read More »

65th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High Luminosity Circular e+e- Colliders (eeFACT2022)

The workshop will take place at the INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi, 54 – Frascati (Rome, Italy) from September 12 to 15, 2022. The INFN Frascati National Laboratories is hosting the ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High Luminosity Circular e+e- Colliders (eeFACT2022). This workshop is organized in the context and with sponsoring of the ICFA Beam Dynamics Panel and EU/IFAST funded European Network for Accelerator Performance and Concepts (APEC). eeFACT2022 scope: Reviewing and documenting the state of the art in e+e- factory design Reviewing and drawing lessons from SuperKEKB phase 3 commissioning Catalyzing further contributions to the SuperKEKB, FCC, CEPC & tau-charm design efforts Fostering synergies and new collaborations across communities, in particular with low-emittance light sources and other colliders (muon, linear, e-ion) and between continents Jointly developing novel solutions to outstanding problems   Workshop Organizing Committee: M.E. Biagini (INFN-LNF, Italy) (LOC chair) A. Blondel (CERN, Switzerland) Y. Funakoshi (KEK, Japan) Y. Li (IHEP, China) Q. Qin (ESRF, France) F. Zimmermann (CERN, Switzerland)   Local Organizing Committee: M.E. Biagini (chair) (INFN-LNF, Italy) F. Casarin (INFN-LNF, Italy) M. Giabbai (INFN-LNF, Italy) S. Guiducci (INFN-LNF, Italy) M. G. Iungo (INFN-LNF, Italy)

Read More »

XX FRASCATI SUMMER SCHOOL “BRUNO TOUSCHEK” in Nuclear, Subnuclear and Astroparticle Physics

The XX LNF Summer School “Bruno Touschek” in Nuclear, Subnuclear and Astroparticle Physics will take place at the INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Italy from Monday, July 11th to Friday, July 15th, 2022. The School is intended for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows in theoretical and experimental high-energy physics. The 2022 edition of the School includes lectures on selected theoretical and experimental topics, discussion sessions, and the 7th Young Researchers Workshop on `Physics Challenges in the LHC Era’, which will take place on Monday, July 11th and on Thursday, July 14th. Students planning to participate in the School are strongly encouraged to apply to give a presentation of their research in the workshop, by sending an email to gennaro.corcella@lnf.infn.it, with a copy to school@lnf.infn.it, with the proposed talk title. The contributions will be published in Frascati Physics Series. A few fellowships covering the registration fee and/or accommodation are available for selected participants giving talks. The 2022 edition of the School consists of six sets of lectures, divided equally between theoretical and experimental topics, two discussion sessions, and a colloquium for a general audience on `Brave New Worlds: Discovery and Characterisation of Planets Beyond our Solar System’. The deadline to apply to the school and possibly give a presentation in the workshop is June 15th. Lecture topics: Flavour physics in quark and charged-lepton sectors QCD and jets at colliders Projects for future accelerators Early Universe Cosmology Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Cosmic Microwave Background Invited Lecturers: Daniel Bayliss (Warwick U.) Matteo Cacciari (LPTHE …

Read More »

The measurement of the B-mode polarization of the CMB: the path towards the next satellite experiment.

Giovanni Signorelli (INFN) The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) carries information from the very first moments of existence of our universe.The picture of its anisotropies which formed some 300,000 years after the Big Bang when radiation and matter decoupled, conveys information about its matter and energy content. CMB polarization allows us to go even further back in time, to the very first fraction of a second, in which cosmological inflation is believed to have happened. Cosmological inflation, the leading hypothesis to resolve the problems in the Big Bang theory, predicts that primordial gravitational waves were created during the inflationary era, which then imprinted large-scale curl patterns in the CMB polarization map, called the B-modes. The measurement of the very faint B-modes requires the development of specialized detectors and electronics: superconducting bolometers coupled to antennas to be sensitive to the microwaves, read out by SQUIDs, amplifiers based on quantum interference in a superconducting loop, all living at sub-Kelvin temperatures. Several experiments are under way or being planned in this search, from ground, balloon, or satellite and INFN is presently involved in some. In particular LiteBIRD (the Lite satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection) has been selected as the next JAXA’s strategic large mission, to be launched in the late 2020s with the primary scientific objective to search for the signal from cosmic inflation, either making a discovery or ruling out well-motivated inflationary models. The measurements of LiteBIRD will in fact provide also insight into …

Read More »

The measurement of the B-mode polarization of the CMB: the path towards the next satellite experiment.

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) carries information from the very first moments of existence of our universe.The picture of its anisotropies which formed some 300,000 years after the Big Bang when radiation and matter decoupled, conveys information about its matter and energy content.  CMB polarization allows us to go even further back in time, to the very first fraction of a second, in which cosmological inflation is believed to have happened. Cosmological inflation, the leading hypothesis to resolve the problems in the Big Bang theory, predicts that primordial gravitational waves were created during the inflationary era, which then imprinted large-scale curl patterns in the CMB polarization map, called the B-modes.  The measurement of the very faint B-modes requires the development of specialized detectors and electronics: superconducting bolometers coupled to antennas to be sensitive to the microwaves, read out by SQUIDs, amplifiers based on quantum interference in a superconducting loop, all living at sub-Kelvin temperatures. Several experiments are under way or being planned in this search, from ground, balloon, or satellite and INFN is presently involved in some. In particular LiteBIRD (the Lite satellite for the study of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection) has been selected as the next JAXA’s strategic large mission, to be launched in the late 2020s with the primary scientific objective to search for the signal from cosmic inflation, either making a discovery or ruling out well-motivated inflationary models. The measurements of LiteBIRD will in fact provide also insight into the quantum nature …

Read More »

Spin structure of the nucleon: current status and future measurements

Harut Avagyan (Jefferson Lab) The quark-gluon dynamics manifests itself in a set of non-perturbative functions  describing all possible  spin-spin and spin-orbit correlations. Recent studies of correlated hadron pairs,  including the pairs created in target and current fragmentation region, indicate significant correlations in hadron fragmentation process. Their understanding is becoming increasingly important in the interpretation of pion electroproduction data in general, and hadronization process of quarks, in particular. Detailed studies in multi-dimensional space, of various multiplicities and different azimuthal modulations in electroproduction of hadrons as a function of transverse momentum of involved hadrons and the Q^2, will be needed to sort out all disagreements with theory predictions and improve the phenomenology of partonic distributions in 3D. In this contribution, we will present ongoing studies and some proposed future measurements with hadrons in electroproduction at large Q^2,  with current CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab, and discuss opportunities with JLab energy upgrade to 24 GeV.   Join Zoom Meeting https://infn-it.zoom.us/j/86363393098?pwd=eFdmUDN0aHZpNTZGanN3bGFxV1JyZz09 Meeting ID: 863 6339 3098 Passcode: 521096

Read More »

Spin structure of the nucleon: current status and future measurements

The quark-gluon dynamics manifests itself in a set of non-perturbative functions  describing all possible  spin-spin and spin-orbit correlations. Recent studies of correlated hadron pairs,  including the pairs created in target and current fragmentation region, indicate significant correlations in hadron fragmentation process. Their understanding is becoming increasingly important in the interpretation of pion electroproduction data in general, and hadronization process of quarks, in particular. Detailed studies in multi-dimensional space, of various multiplicities and different azimuthal modulations in electroproduction of hadrons as a function of transverse momentum of involved hadrons and the Q^2, will be needed to sort out all disagreements with theory predictions and improve the phenomenology of partonic distributions in 3D. In this contribution, we will present ongoing studies and some proposed future measurements with hadrons in electroproduction at large Q^2,  with current CLAS12 detector at Jefferson Lab, and discuss opportunities with JLab energy upgrade to 24 GeV.   Join Zoom Meeting https://infn-it.zoom.us/j/86363393098?pwd=eFdmUDN0aHZpNTZGanN3bGFxV1JyZz09 Meeting ID: 863 6339 3098 Passcode: 521096

Read More »

Ionic Liquids designed solvents for green chemistry application

Ionic liquids (ILs) are organic salts that exist in the liquid phase at temperatures < 100 °C and there are up to 1018 possible candidates for this group of compounds. By using different ions arrangements it is possible to design ILs to fit the requirements of a certain application which is the most important feature of ILs. Also, ILs can be designed to be non-toxic (the third generation of ILs) or with significantly reduced toxicity compared to conventional organic solvents. ILs as highly potent, designed solvents with tunable physical and chemical properties can be successfully applied in extraction processes as solvents and task-specific extractants at the same time. Since the replacement and reduction of organic solvents belong to the main postulates of green chemistry, the design and synthesis of new ILs are in a line with green chemical principles. Additionally, the extraction procedure can be optimized so that more than 95% of the extraction mixture content is water. Aqueous biphasic systems (ABSs) are one of the green extraction approaches. ABSs based on designed ILs have been investigated and applied as an effective substitute for classical liquid-liquid extraction for (1) extraction of pesticides and textile dyes as an alternative method for their removal from waste manufacture waters; (2) sample preparation before analytical quantification (selective extraction and enrichment of Cu(II) from wastewater and biological samples with task-specific ILs); (3) recover and reuse of bioactive value-added compounds from food waste as a circular economy perspective; (4) recycling of technology critical elements; (5) isolation …

Read More »

Dynamics of classical singularities in 2D symmetric potentials

Generally speaking, as a consequence of a famous Liouville’s theorem, the volume of the phase space under the Hamiltonian flow is constant. This also means that the Jacobian of the mapping determined by the Hamiltonian flow is equal to 1 and, therefore, this mapping is never singular. However, in many important physical systems one needs to consider a specific Hamiltonian flow, which is defined by specific initial conditions. It can be shown that in this way obtained the reduced mapping can be singular. As a consequence, caustics and rainbows occur, in the configuration and angular space, respectively. Importance of the study of the singular dynamics is that the family of particles along the singularities produces a strong focusing effect. It should be also stressed that the singularities represent important global characteristic of a dynamical system. In the scattering physics of photons off a rain droplet this corresponds to the well-known rainbow effect. The singularities in 2D Hamiltonian dynamical systems described by symmetric potentials will be presented. It is assumed that the initial motion is at rest i.e. that the initial values of particles in the 2D momentum space are equal to zero. Motivation for the choice of the initial condition is related, but not restricted, to the scattering theory. Moreover, dynamic of the system can be treated independently of the scattering theory. It will be shown that a rich complex behavior of the singularities occurs. Their evolution includes qualitatively change of their form, which is accompanied with their “interactions”. Main …

Read More »