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Challenges in hadron therapy: range monitoring

Ion beams, after over 50 years of exploitation and optimization, have grown to be a key tool in modern tumour treatment. Currently over 50 ion therapy centres are in operation worldwide, next few tens are under construction. However, despite decades of experience, lack of in-vivo and in-situ monitoring methods disables full exploitation of excellent physical and biological properties of hadron beams. In my talk I will briefly remind the idea and the history of ion beam therapy. I will review methods of online range monitoring being developed by different group in the world, and focus on the Krak?w-Aachen-Katowice project.

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Workshop Quantum Foundations. The physics of “what happens” and the measurement problem

This workshop is organized in the framework of the Foundational Questions Institute, FQXI, project: “Events” as we see them: experimental test of the collapse models as a solution of the measurement problem, and is sponsored by INFN. The aim of the workshop is to discuss the possible limits of validity of quantum mechanics, the collapse models and, more generally,  theories which go beyond the standard quantum mechanics, as well as experiments aiming to test them. Also, in this context, the role that gravity may play will be discussed. From the theoretical point of view, since the Einstein-Bohr debate, quantum mechanics never stopped raising questions about its meaning. In particular, the transition from the microscopic world, where systems are observed in a superposition of different quantum states, to the macroscopic world, where systems have well defined positions (the so-called “measurement problem”), never stopped to puzzle the scientific community. For this reason, scientists are pushed to look for theories beyond the standard quantum formulation. From the experimental point of view, quantum mechanics is the best verified available theory. It is therefore a very compelling challenge to look for possible small violations predicted by alternative quantum theories. The aim is either to put stronger observational bounds on the new theories, i.e. on model's parameters, or, much more exciting, to find a violation of standard quantum mechanics when compared with the new theories' predictions. In this framework, a deeper understanding of the possible limits of validity of the quantum superposition principle is an interesting ...

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METAL PHOTOCATHODE R&D AT DARESBURY LABORATORY

Photocathode technology in accelerator science is an exciting and growing field of research and development. Prior to the first implementation of a photocathode in the RF gun operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1985, thermionic cathodes were typically used in electron guns. Switching from the thermionic cathode to a laser driven photocathode offered a monumental improvement in the overall beam quality. With the advent of the photoinjector, the emittance reduced by over a factor of 10, compared with a thermionic injector. Photocathode research is increasingly important to meet the demands of modern accelerators. In linear accelerator driven 4th generation Free Electron Lasers, the final beam quality is set by the linac and ultimately by its photoinjector and photocathode. Therefore, to deliver cutting-edge beam characteristics, linac based sources have stringent requirements particularly with respect to the photocathode used in the photoinjector. Understanding how surface properties of materials influence photocathode properties such as Quantum Efficiency (QE) and intrinsic emittance is critical for such sources. Metal cathode R&D at Daresbury Laboratory (DL) is driven by our on-site accelerators VELA (Versatile Electron Linear Accelerator) and CLARA (Compact Linear Accelerator for Research and Applications); the Free Electron Laser test facility at DL. Metals offer the advantage of a fast response time which enables the generation of short electron pulses. Additionally, they are robust to conditions within the gun cavity. In this work, the effect of different preparation procedures on the surface composition, work function and QE was investigated for a range of metal photocathode ...

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Hot QCD Matters

Aim of the workshop: Strongly-interacting matter at extreme conditions of temperature and density is a major subject of research in both theoretical and experimental communities. Experiments with ultra-relativistic nuclei at RHIC and LHC create matter at extremely high temperatures, where quark-gluon plasma is formed and studied, reproducing in laboratory conditions which were realized  in the Early Universe. According to the Big Bang Theory this state of matter existed in the Universe roughly between 20 pico-s and 20 micro-s after the BigBang. At a very high density, a cold quark-gluon plasma as well as other exotic phases (quarkyonic, colour superconducting) might exist in the core of neutron stars, outside the reach of current experiments. The analysis of strongly-coupled systems requires non-perturbative methods such as lattice QCD or functional renormalization group. These studies have provided information of the phases and thermodynamics of QCD at equilibrium. On the other hand, the state of matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions reaches equilibrium only for a very short time. It is a major challenge of contemporary studies to develop theoretical and phenomenological tools which link the experimental observations with the predictions of the fundamental theory at equilibrium. The aim of this 3-day meeting is to convene experts to stimulate an informal discussion on hot QCD and related topics. We plan to have only three talks each day, and plenty of time to discuss some of the open issues in heavy-ion theory and measurements. The equation of state of nuclear matter and its relation with the ...

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Fundamental Physic with Atomic Spectroscopy and Magnetic Resonance

I will discuss the ongoing experiments (CASPEr and GNOME) searching for ultralight galactic dark matter using magnetic-resonance techniques. I will also discuss testing fundamental symmetries of Nature using spectroscopic techniques, including the search for new particles and forces, measuring parity violation in atomic and molecular systems, and testing the permutation-symmetry postulate and the spin-statistics connection in atomic transitions.

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Spring Institute: Challenging the Standard Model after the Higgs discovery

Aim of the workshop: The Spring Institute will gather theorists and experimentalists, working mostly in the Rome area in the field of collider physics. In an informal environment, we shall investigate a few selected topics on possible tests of the Standard Model and its extensions after the discovery of the Higgs boson. In particular, we will discuss of recent progresses in effective field theories, of the trilinear Higgs self-coupling, as well as of the hunting for heavy resonances at the LHC, from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints.  

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A Rare Opportunity – the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

Quarks and neutrinos are known to change flavors, but what about the charged leptons? The proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will offer a sensitivity to charged-lepton flavor violating processes four orders of magnitude better than anything to have come before it. This extraordinary improvement in sensitivity will give Mu2e significant discovery potential over a wide range of new physics models. Moreover, Mu2e probes for this new physics in a manner complementary to the rest of the world’s HEP physics program at effective mass scales approaching 10,000 TeV. The physics motivations, design sensitivity, and status of the Mu2e experiment will be presented.

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MUSE General Meeting

2017 Annual General Meeting reviewing the activities supported by the MUSE project. MUSE is a EU funded project under the Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation program, Grant Agreement 690835. It coordinates the activities of about 70 researchers from various European research institutes (INFN, University College London, University of Liverpool, Helmholtz-Centrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Fermilab) and industries (PRISMA, CAEN, AdvanSid) for the participation to the experiments at the Muon Campus of the Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL), in USA. The meeting will be held at the Frascati National Laboratory of INFN.

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