The Detector Development Group (DDG LAB Frascati INFN), has long been involved (since 1985) in the R&D, design and manufacturing of classical gaseous detectors, such as wire tubes operated in proportional or streamer mode (1985-1990), RPC with glass electrodes (1991-1994), large drift chamber (1995-1997) and Micro-Pattern-Gaseous-Detector (MPGDs –since 2000) for large high energy physics experiments.
MPGDs are made possible by the smart exploitation of the standard photolithographic techniques on rigid and flexible substrates. They have been introduced in 1988, by A. Oed, when the first architecture, namely the MicroStrip Gas Chamber (MSGC), was proposed and evolved in the following years in MICROMEGAS (Y. Giomataris) and GEMs (F. Sauli).
The R&D activity of DDG on MPGDs, GEMs and other innovative architectures, has been led for the last two decades, in the framework of the LHCb experiment (CERN) with the development of the planar GEM detectors, and the pioneering design and construction of the first Cylindrical-GEM detector for the Inner Tracker of the KLOE experiment at DAFNE (Frascati). The last DDG artefact is an innovative gas detector, named micro-Resistive-WELL (µ-RWELL): a compact MPGD, with a single amplification stage based on the “well” concept, intrinsically protected against the sparks, one the most critical problem of MPGDs. The µ-RWELL has been recently proposed for the phase-2 upgrade of the very forward regions of the CMS apparatus at CERN and for the upgrade of the small angle stations of the muon apparatus of the LHCb experiment. Due to their features (compact, simple and large) a wider and wider interest on this detector has been shown by other research groups from international collaborations, for applications on large area fine tracking device, digital hadron sampling calorimetry, imaging with X-ray and neutron, and homeland security.