CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) – LIMADOU is a program of scientific space missions dedicated to monitoring electromagnetic field and waves, plasma and particle perturbations of the atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere induced by natural sources and anthropocentric emitters and to study their correlations with the occurrence of seismic events.
They investigate the structure and the dynamics of the topside ionosphere, the coupling mechanisms with the lower and higher plasma layers and the temporal variations of the geomagnetic field, in quiet and disturbed conditions. Data collected during the missions also allow to study solar-terrestrial interactions and solar physics phenomena, namely Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), solar flares and cosmic ray solar modulation. The data will contribute to provide an observational sharing service for international cooperation and the scientific community.
The program foresees several satellites to be sequentially launched. The first one, CSES-01, in orbit since February 2nd, 2018, is currently operational and in data taking phase, equipped with nine instruments, among which the Italian High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD-01). Expected lifetime is 5 years.
The second satellite, CSES-02, in advanced implementation stage will be equipped with ten instruments, among which, the HEPD-02 and the Electric Field Detector (EFD), both of Italian responsibility. The launch is scheduled in Spring 2022. Expected lifetime is 6 years.
CSES missions are part of a collaboration program between China National Space Administration (CNSA) and Italian Space Agency (ASI), and developed by China Earthquake Administration (CEA) and Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), together with several Chinese and Italian Universities and research Institutes.
Italy participates to the CSES missions with the LIMADOU project – funded by ASI and INFN – through a collaboration that includes several INFN Divisions (Bologna, Naples, Roma Tor Vergata, Torino), the INFN Center TIFPA of Trento, the INFN National Laboratories of Frascati, the Universities of Bologna, Roma Tor Vergata, Torino, Trento, Uninettuno Roma, INAF-IAPS (Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology), INGV (Institute National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and CNR-IFAC (Institute of Applied Physics).